D.ershane Solutions Ddili.org

Inheritance

  1. The member functions that are declared as abstract by superclasses must be defined by the override keyword by subclasses.

    Ignoring the Train class for this exercise, Locomotive.makeSound and RailwayCar.makeSound can be implemented as in the following program:

    import std.stdio;
    import std.exception;
    
    class RailwayVehicle {
        void advance(in size_t kilometers) {
            writefln("The vehicle is advancing %s kilometers",
                     kilometers);
    
            foreach (i; 0 .. kilometers / 100) {
                writefln("  %s", makeSound());
            }
        }
    
        abstract string makeSound();
    }
    
    class Locomotive : RailwayVehicle {
        override string makeSound() {
            return "choo choo";
        }
    }
    
    class RailwayCar : RailwayVehicle {
        // ...
    
        override string makeSound() {
            return "clack clack";
        }
    }
    
    class PassengerCar : RailwayCar {
        // ...
    }
    
    class FreightCar : RailwayCar {
        // ...
    }
    
    void main() {
        auto railwayCar1 = new PassengerCar;
        railwayCar1.advance(100);
    
        auto railwayCar2 = new FreightCar;
        railwayCar2.advance(200);
    
        auto locomotive = new Locomotive;
        locomotive.advance(300);
    }
    
  2. The following program uses the sounds of the components of Train to make the sound of Train itself:
    import std.stdio;
    import std.exception;
    
    class RailwayVehicle {
        void advance(in size_t kilometers) {
            writefln("The vehicle is advancing %s kilometers",
                     kilometers);
    
            foreach (i; 0 .. kilometers / 100) {
                writefln("  %s", makeSound());
            }
        }
    
        abstract string makeSound();
    }
    
    class Locomotive : RailwayVehicle {
        override string makeSound() {
            return "choo choo";
        }
    }
    
    class RailwayCar : RailwayVehicle {
        abstract void load();
        abstract void unload();
    
        override string makeSound() {
            return "clack clack";
        }
    }
    
    class PassengerCar : RailwayCar {
        override void load() {
            writeln("The passengers are getting on");
        }
    
        override void unload() {
            writeln("The passengers are getting off");
        }
    }
    
    class FreightCar : RailwayCar {
        override void load() {
            writeln("The crates are being loaded");
        }
    
        override void unload() {
            writeln("The crates are being unloaded");
        }
    }
    
    class Train : RailwayVehicle {
        Locomotive locomotive;
        RailwayCar[] cars;
    
        this(Locomotive locomotive) {
            enforce(locomotive !is null,
                    "Locomotive cannot be null");
            this.locomotive = locomotive;
        }
    
        void addCar(RailwayCar[] cars...) {
            this.cars ~= cars;
        }
    
        override string makeSound() {
            string result = locomotive.makeSound();
    
            foreach (car; cars) {
                result ~= ", " ~ car.makeSound();
            }
    
            return result;
        }
    
        void departStation(string station) {
            foreach (car; cars) {
                car.load();
            }
    
            writefln("Departing from %s station", station);
        }
    
        void arriveStation(string station) {
            writefln("Arriving at %s station", station);
    
            foreach (car; cars) {
                car.unload();
            }
        }
    }
    
    void main() {
        auto locomotive = new Locomotive;
        auto train = new Train(locomotive);
    
        train.addCar(new PassengerCar, new FreightCar);
    
        train.departStation("Ankara");
        train.advance(500);
        train.arriveStation("Haydarpaşa");
    }
    

    The output:

    The passengers are getting on
    The crates are being loaded
    Departing from Ankara station
    The vehicle is advancing 500 kilometers
      choo choo, clack clack, clack clack
      choo choo, clack clack, clack clack
      choo choo, clack clack, clack clack
      choo choo, clack clack, clack clack
      choo choo, clack clack, clack clack
    Arriving at Haydarpaşa station
    The passengers are getting off
    The crates are being unloaded